In general, there are three categories of doctorate degrees that apply to the health professions: the professional doctorate, the clinical doctorate, and the research doctorate.
In the science-based professional doctorate, the M.D. and D.O are the most well known. Other educational routes lead to professional doctorates, but the philosophy, education, and training tend to focus on more specific aspects of medicine. Practitioners with these professional degrees require state licenses to practice and the scope of their practice is limited by law. These more specialized practitioners and the degrees awarded include: Dentistry (DDS or DMD), Podiatric Medicine (DPM), Chiropractic Medicine (DC), Veterinary Medicine (DVM or VMD), and Naturopathic Medicine (ND).
The "research doctorate" in any field, health or otherwise, is considered to be the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). A lesser-known, non-research, "educational doctorate" is the Doctor of Education (EDD). PhDs are trained primarily to be researchers in a particular field and they, along with EDDs, are commonly employed as "specialized field experts" in colleges and universities. PhDs in science are also employed in medical schools and professional health preparation programs. Here PhDs not only teach the basic biomedical sciences didactic courses during the first two years of medical school and most other professional four year programs, but are expected to carry out scientific or biomedical research in their areas of expertise. The last two years of professional education emphasizes clinical preparation and training by degreed professionals and residents in the post graduate programs.
Many health programs are now beginning to award the so-called practicing or "clinical doctorate" degree. Examples include: PharmD (Doctor of Pharmacy), ND (Nursing Doctorate), DPT (Doctor of Physical Therapy), and PsyD (Doctor of Psychology). In several disciplines, licensing for practitioners may require the doctorate for new practitioners with "transitional degrees" requiring additional coursework for those reviously-licensed professionals with a lesser degree. Since those earning clinical doctorates learn much less about conducting research or advising students who seek research opportunities, a major objection cited is that clinical doctorates threaten the quality and quantity of research. There is little evidence to date that the clinical doctorate has increased the status, compensation, or reimbursement for the kinds of services provided. The major factor affecting compensation remains the shortage of practitioners and not their educational level.
Again, it is important for students interested in the health professions to understand the preparation and admission practices for the health profession in which they intend to enter. The selection of an academic major and minor and the choice of elective coursework are important. Not to be ignored is the timely preparation process for admission, personal development, and the specific activities suggested by your health profession advisor that prepare you to become a competitive applicant.
Communicating with recent graduates of the program you are preparing to enter can be useful in selecting the coursework and activities to prepare for admission. Each academic major commonly chosen by students planning profession careers in medical fields offers advantages. Some majors tend to help you better prepare for admission examinations. Some majors cultivate the development of important professional attribues. Other majors help make the first two years of the professional program easier to handle after you have been admitted.
To explore the advantages and opportunities of a major in cell and molecular biology in preparing for a medical career, please visit this link. Check out the extensive list of advisement guides for premedical students on the Department of Biomedical Sciences website. Also, check student testimonials from former CMB majors who have completed medical school or are completing their medical education in both allopathic and osteopathic medical schools. Finally, see the NAAHP-sponsored survey reporting on undergraduate coursework recommendations from medical students themselves from medical school programs in the midwest as they began their second year of medical school.
Remember, regardless of promotional pronouncements, there are several different avenues of approach to admission into medical school. Each major program of undergraduate study provides a different combination and degree of assets and advantages. The challenge for the student is to understand what the advantages and assets of a particular program are. For many students, the learning curve is achieved long after the choices have been made. The best advice is to do some research up front and then choose a program in which the student has an interest. Do well in the major program of your choice to fully take advantage of what that particular major program has to offer in preparing you for the next step in your career.
Primary Web Sites for Premedical Students
- Information on the 125 allopathic medical schools in the US: http://www.aamc.org/students/start.htm
- American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) for applications to allopathic medical schools.
- Information on the 20 osteopathic medical schools in the US: http://www.aacom.org
- American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Services for applications to osteopathic medical schools
For More Information
Contact one of the following Premedical Advisors:
Dr. Colette Witkowski* (417) 836-5603, Prof. Bldg, Room 404
Dr. Scott Zimmerman* (417) 836-6123, Prof. Bldg, Room 338
Dr. Richard Garrad* (417) 836-5372, Prof. Bldg, Room 345
Dr. Amanda Brodeur* (417) 836-5478, Prof Bldg, Room 352
Dr. Robert Delong (417) 836-5730, Prof Bldg, Room 333
Dr. Ben Timson (417) 836-4145, Prof Bldg, Room 407
Dr. Jianjie Wang (417) 836-6140, Prof Bldg, Room 341
Mr. Joseph Williams (417) 836-6782, Prof Bldg, Room 342
* indicates current member of the Premedical Committee
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Missouri State University
901 South National Avenue
Springfield, Missouri 65897